Wednesday, 15 June 2011

Facilitation with Gordon Wyllie

In this article I am going to address the subject of facilitation. The purpose of a facilitator is to make an activity much more productive and easier to perform. It's about helping groups, or individuals to identify and agree an outcome. The group or individual come up with their own ideas/answers, not the facilitator.

A facilitator has to act as a catalyst, someone who creates an environment which encourages full participation, respect for other people's views, the sharing of information leading to joint ownership of the outcome. They have to get ideas and insights to flow promoting the identification and agreement of appropriate solutions, where previously there were none.


There is extensive information about facilitation on the internet. You can delve into the theory of group dynamics - forming, storming, norming, performing (, adjourning). Here’s just some of the advice given:

What you should do

• Observe
• Actively listen
• Let the discussions flow, make your interventions appropriate and value adding
• Encourage participation by all
• Focus on the process not the content


What you shouldn’t do

• Lead the group
• Downplay people’s ideas.
• Promote personal agendas and opinions
• Allow bullying behaviour
• Dominate the group.
• Side with one section of the group


All very good, but how do you do it in the real world? We all have to act as facilitators in some shape or form in our day-to-day lives. It could be:

• Helping your team to identify the root cause of a recurring problem.
• Working with a staff member to identify their career path
• Identifying requirements with a customer

So how do I facilitate? My approach is to break the activity into four key stages


• Orientation
• Intellectual Harvesting
• Outcome Generation
• Closeout

Orientation

The participants need to be clear about what they are discussing and what is to be achieved. It is vital that they are all singing from the same hymn sheet. Clarity at the start helps avoid confusion and fruitless debate later.

I first show them a map of the intended purpose of the meeting. The map also shows them what their roles are, what my role is and the process to be adopted.



I then get them to discuss the subject matter to agree the purpose and intended outcomes. This gets them participating immediately. I also get an understanding of what they are talking about, the vocabulary that they use and, more importantly, whether or not they are in agreement about the task in hand. Sounds obvious, but you would be surprised how often you discover that apparent experts or practitioners of a particular activity have widely differing views and knowledge about it. Some individuals may not even be aware of why they have been asked to be involved.

It’s at this point that any change to the planned outcome and process should be agreed. The agreed map also serves as a route map for the rest of the meeting and provides a means of bringing the discussion back onto track if it starts to deviate.

Intellectual Harvesting
Having established a shared perspective of the subject matter, I then enter the ‘Intellectual Harvesting’ stage of facilitation where I record all of their thoughts on the subject matter. Why record? Because otherwise what is said will be lost and you won’t have anything to review or walk back through at a later stage. It is important that all the participants’ knowledge, thoughts, opinions, and experience can be seen and shared. You don’t want a ‘knowledge is power’ situation to develop.

I encourage them to discuss all aspects. I often use a combination of open questions and mini brainstorming sessions to get them to explore the subject matter. Open questions are ideal for encouraging the participants to expand on a comment or to provide further supporting evidence. The MindGenius Questions Lists are extremely helpful for doing this.


Even just asking the question “Why?” can work wonders. Repeated use of “Why?” helps you peel away the layers of (mis)information so you get to the crux of the matter. It is so simple to do. However don’t overdo it as people will not be quick to volunteer a comment if they know they are going to be questioned about it.

As ever, balance is important. One way to break up the questions is to go for a period without a question, just record what is being said. Then summarise the input and sprinkle it with a few pertinent questions. Alternatively ask some questions first in order to get the participants thinking from different perspectives and record the outcome.

When you are trying to get the participants to share their thoughts, to be creative or to think about new things, short brainstorming sessions are ideal for recording thoughts, ideas, opinions and suggestions

Once the initial Intellectual Harvesting is complete I walk through the map to summarize what they have said. This gives them an opportunity to discuss areas that they consider require to be amended/discussed further. It gives them a chance to make sense of what has been recorded.
The walkthrough recounts what has been said, rather than my interpretation of what was said – keeps me neutral.

Outcome Generation
The Intellectual Harvesting information is then used as the basis for creating the agreed outcomes. I get them to use categories in the Intellectual Harvesting map to help them identify the key areas and prioritise them, to separate the wheat from the chaff. Then they can filter the information to focus on a specific aspect.
Again the use of questions and short brainstorming sessions can help the participants develop the outcomes. I often use the Timer feature to initially limit the brainstorming sessions and focus the minds


But always remember that the participants are the experts, the idea generators. You are there to facilitate them in these roles, not to give your opinion or recount your own experience in this matter. It’s much better to get them to arrive at the solution. Perhaps open a new avenue of thought with “Have you considered…..?”

 
They develop the outcomes whilst I facilitate and record their discussions. When they are finished, I again walk them through the maps to reaffirm their consensus on the outcome.

Closeout
Having agreed the outcome, I get them to discuss and agree what is to happen with the outcomes and who will do what after the meeting. Agreed actions are added to the map, with the people responsible (Resource), description of activity (Note) and timescales (Task) information recorded.
So that’s my approach to facilitation.
• Orientation – starting from a common point to create agreed outcomes
• Intellectual Harvesting – recording the knowledge and thoughts of the participants
• Outcome Generation – generating and agreeing the outcomes
• Closeout – creating an action plan

I hope you found this article of interest. As ever, if you have any comments or queries please don’t hesitate to ask Gordon.

PS: I’ve been using the new question lists and brainstorming features in MindGenius 4.


It’s useful that you can brainstorm away from the map environment as it can give the activity a less structured, more creative feel. Also the fact that the participants can be prompted from question lists and their responses automatically linked to the question stimulating the response so the recorded ideas can be later displayed as a question centric map adds significantly to my box of facilitation tools.

Hints and Tips - Presentations Slides

Our objective is to create a memorable presentation where the audience receive and retain the message that we set out to deliver.

Ultimately the content, structure and flow of our presentation and its interest and relevance to our audience will determine whether we meet our objective, however the content and look of each slide is an important part of supporting your presentation.

Here are a couple of Hints & Tips to help you create great supporting slides.

An audience is more likely to understand and retain information if it is presented in small logical chunks. The slides are there to support the commentary from the presenter and should display the structure and key points being made and not try to include every spoken word in the slide.

The slide below probably contains too much information either to be read by the audience or to be retained.




Utilizing a good key word driven hierarchical mapping structure and supplementing with appropriate images will help the audience engage and retain the information.

Here is the same map showing only the structure and keywords of the presentation;




And here we take that a stage further and present an index first before focusing in on each sub section, adding appropriate images for each.




One hint that has become popular with the early users of the presentation feature is to create multiple slides from the same part of a map and configure each slide to expand on a different part of the map each time.
To do this, make sure you are in the Map view and not the Presentation view.
Select the part of the map that you want to create slides from, then select Add Slide, Based on Selection (Don’t Switch).

Without changing your selection in the map, select Add Slide (Don’t Switch) again.




When you ‘Switch View’ to the presentation view, you will have two slides with the same web part on them. However, you are then able to expand / collapse these web parts independently on each slide.

To view a step-by-step guide on this and to find out in more detail how to configure your slides, view our Presentations Tutorial Video.



6 Thinking Hats and MindGenius


Steve Rothwell is the creator of the Peace of Mind Blog which discusses practical applications of mind mapping, idea mapping and visual mapping. Last month he looked at the Consensus Workshop Method and this month he has taken a look at 6 Thinking Hats and MindGenius.

De Bono’s 6 Thinking Hats - different coloured hats each symbolising a specific perspective - provide a structured way of looking at a problem or idea from all angles. It's a great workshop tool.

With the brainstorming and analysis tools included within MindGenius 4 it is possible to step through a process of: generating ideas using the Thinking Hats; reviewing the ideas, again with the Thinking Hats; then creating a final integrated view of all the ideas, categorised by Thinking Hat.

In summary, the 6 Thinking Hats are:

White hat: neutral; fact or information driven; trends; no opinions; gaps in knowledge

Red hat: intuition or gut reactions; feelings; emotional responses

Black hat: defensive thinking; risks; constraints; impact for other initiatives

Yellow hat: positive thinking; opportunities; benefits

Green hat: creativity; new ways of seeing things; new associations; insights

Blue hat: process control – worn by the meeting chair; summaries; actions; decisions


The hats can be created as MindGenius categories ahead of the workshop.

Depending on how the workshop is planned, you might first begin with a brainstorm and collect all the ideas in MindGenius.
The 6 Thinking Hats icons can be applied as the process is stepped through or as part of a second pass where the audience is asked to categorise the ideas.


To create some order from this brainstorm and initial categorisation, select the " Create Map from Brainstorm" option and "Create Category-Centric Map".

MindGenius will create a new map with branches based on each of the 6 Thinking Hats and the categorised ideas attached under the appropriate branch.
Reformat the map to a preferred style and you are ready to move on to the next stage of the workshop.
Steve has also put together articles on adding the 6 Hats as MindGenius Categories and adding 6 Thinking Hats Question Sets at http://vismap.blogspot.com/

Great response to MindGenius 4

MindGenius has now released Version 4 of its popular mind mapping software, MindGenius and since its release, it has received great feedback from customers and mind mapping industry experts.
Chuck Frey of the Mind Mapping Software blog reviewed Version 4 and said:

MindGenius 4 dazzles with innovative brainstorming and presentation modes… The depth of capabilities and customization offered in MindGenius 4's brainstorming mode is simply astounding… MindGenius saw an opportunity to rethink the whole concept of what a mind mapping presentation view could do, because they’ve definitely kicked it up a few notches over anything I’ve seen before! Both of the new views are winners in my book.”


New Brainstorming Mode

Other feedback from industry bloggers has been really positive too with Wallace Tait, author of the Visual Mapper blog commenting that MindGenius 4 is:

An awesome product that delivers a very dynamic experience for the Visual information manager. I highly recommend this product.”

New Presentations Mode

And Steve Rothwell, author of the Peace of Mind blog, said “Initial overall impressions are that this version adds significant new functionality - functionality that is immediately useful for all kinds of idea creation, evaluation, planning and communication.

In particular, the Brainstorming and Analysis tools, when used in combination, offer powerful tools for facilitating 1-1 sessions, meetings and workshops.”

Steve has since put together a few articles on using the new functionality which can be accessed at: http://vismap.blogspot.com/ Steve is also the author of this month’s article on using MindGenius to apply the 6 Thinking Hats methodology. Read Now
You can download a 30 day free trial of MindGenius 4 from http://www.mindgenius.com/, or view a short video on what’s new in version 4 at www.mindgenius.com/New-in-Version-4.aspx.  Version 4 will install without affecting your current installation.


Special upgrade pricing is only available until the 30th June 2011.